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2012年07月07日雅思閱讀機經[A類]

2012-07-16 12:01:07 / 來源:未知 / 編輯:蔣序祥

考試日期:
201277
Reading Passage 1
Title:
The Effects of Media on Children’s Communication
Question types:
Summary with a box
TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN
文章內容回顧
這篇主要講Media對孩子的communication的影響,研究從access, understanding, innovation三個方面展開
英文原文閱讀
SOCIAL MEDIA USE BY TWEENS AND TEENS
Engaging in various forms of social media is a routine activity that research has shown to benefit children and adolescents by enhancing communication, social connection, and even technical skills. Social media sites such as Facebook and MySpace offer multiple daily opportunities for connecting with friends, classmates, and people with shared interests. During the last 5 years, the number of preadolescents and adolescents using such sites has increased dramatically. According to a recent poll, 22% of teenagers log on to their favorite social media site more than 10 times a day, and more than half of adolescents log on to a social media site more than once a day. Seventy-five percent of teenagers now own cell phones, and 25% use them for social media, 54% use them for texting, and 24% use them for instant messaging.Thus, a large part of this generation's social and emotional development is occurring while on the Internet and on cell phones.
Because of their limited capacity for self-regulation and susceptibility to peer pressure, children and adolescents are at some risk as they navigate and experiment with social media. Recent research indicates that there are frequent online expressions of offline behaviors, such as bullying, clique-forming, and sexual experimentation, that have introduced problems such as cyberbullying, privacy issues, and “sexting.” Other problems that merit awareness include Internet addiction and concurrent sleep deprivation.
Many parents today use technology incredibly well and feel comfortable and capable with the programs and online venues that their children and adolescents are using. Nevertheless, some parents may find it difficult to relate to their digitally savvy youngsters online for several reasons. Such parents may lack a basic understanding of these new forms of socialization, which are integral to their children's lives. They frequently do not have the technical abilities or time needed to keep pace with their children in the ever-changing Internet landscape. In addition, these parents often lack a basic understanding that kids' online lives are an extension of their offline lives. The end result is often a knowledge and technical skill gap between parents and youth, which creates a disconnect in how these parents and youth participate in the online world together
BENEFITS OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS USING SOCIAL MEDIA
Socialization and Communication
Social media sites allow teens to accomplish online many of the tasks that are important to them offline: staying connected with friends and family, making new friends, sharing pictures, and exchanging ideas. Social media participation also can offer adolescents deeper benefits that extend into their view of self, community, and the world, including:
opportunities for community engagement through raising money for charity and volunteering for local events, including political and philanthropic events;
enhancement of individual and collective creativity through development and sharing of artistic and musical endeavors;
growth of ideas from the creation of blogs, podcasts, videos, and gaming sites;
expansion of one's online connections through shared interests to include others from more diverse backgrounds (such communication is an important step for all adolescents and affords the opportunity for respect, tolerance, and increased discourse about personal and global issues);
And fostering of one's individual identity and unique social skills.
Enhanced Learning Opportunities
Middle and high school students are using social media to connect with one another on homework and group projects. For example, Facebook and similar social media programs allow students to gather outside of class to collaborate and exchange ideas about assignments. Some schools successfully use blogs as teaching tools, which has the benefit of reinforcing skills in English, written expression, and creativity.
Accessing Health Information
Adolescents are finding that they can access online information about their health concerns easily and anonymously. Excellent health resources are increasingly available to youth on a variety of topics of interest to this population, such as sexually transmitted infections, stress reduction, and signs of depression. Adolescents with chronic illnesses can access Web sites through which they can develop supportive networks of people with similar conditions. The mobile technologies that teens use daily, namely cell phones, instant messaging, and text messaging, have already produced multiple improvements in their health care, such as increased medication adherence, better disease understanding, and fewer missed appointments. Given that the new social media venues all have mobile applications, teenagers will have enhanced opportunities to learn about their health issues and communicate with their doctors. However, because of their young age, adolescents can encounter inaccuracies during these searches and require parental involvement to be sure they are using reliable online resources, interpreting the information correctly, and not becoming overwhelmed by the information they are reading. Encouraging parents to ask about their children's and adolescents' online searches can help facilitate not only discovery of this information but discussion on these topics.
題型難度分析
據考生回憶,第一篇很簡單。一種是填空類的題型,另一種是考生易拿分的經典題型判斷題。
題型技巧分析
是非無判斷題是雅思考試閱讀的經典題型,雖然今年的題量相對減少,但是仍是復習備考時應關注的題型。
首先應該注意看清是TRUE還是YES, 本篇是TRUE FALSE NOT GIVEN
解題步驟:
1. 速讀問題的句子,找出考點詞(容易有問題的部分)。考點詞:比較級,最高級,數據(時間),程度副詞,特殊形容詞,絕對化的詞(only, most, each, any, every, the same as等)
2. 排除考點詞,在余下的詞中找定位詞,去原文定位。
3. 重點考察考點詞是否有提及,是否正確。
TRUE的原則是同義替換,至少有一組近義詞。
FALSE是題目和原文截然相反,不可共存,通常有至少一組反義詞。
NOT GIVEN原文未提及,不做任何推斷,尤其多考察題目的主語等名詞在原文是否有提及。
Summary題,有順序原則。
先關注instruction字數限制
其次,定位summary在原文的始末位置,summary開頭和結尾分別找keywords定位到原文。
根據空格前后信息,預測空格上的單詞(單復數,可數與否,詞性,-ing, -ed, 固定搭配等)
在空格附近找定位詞(專有名詞,數字,句子主語,表示方位的介詞,表時間的詞,不認識的可數名詞)
劍橋雅思推薦原文練習
劍4 Test1 Passage1
劍5 Test3 Passage1
Reading Passage 2
Title:
日本工藝品的發展史 Japanese Ceramics/Wares
Question types:
List of headings
Pick from a List (5選2)
填空
文章內容回顧
這篇是講日本陶瓷的歷史和發展,提及了這門技術的保存,創造過程,技術發展的多樣化,政府對其的認可,手工匠的教育和培訓以及他們的貢獻和影響。
英文原文閱讀
Japan Ceramics
One of Japan's oldest art forms, ceramics, reaches back to the Neolithic period (ca. 10,000 B.C.), when the earliest soft earthenware was coil-made, decorated by hand-impressed rope patterns (Jomon ware), and baked in the open. Continental emigrants of the third century B.C. introduced the use of the wheel along with the metal age (Yayoi), and eventually (in the third to fourth centuries A.D.), a tunnel kiln in which stoneware fired at high temperatures embellished with natural ash glaze was produced. Medieval kilns enabled more refined production of stoneware, which was still produced in the late twentieth century at a few famous sites, especially in central Honshu around the city of Seto, the wares of which were so widely used that Seto-mono became the generic term for ceramics in Japan. The overlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi's Korean campaigns of the late sixteenth century were dubbed the "ceramic wars," since the importation of Korean potters appeared to be the Koreans' major contribution. These potters introduced a variety of new techniques and styles in their artifacts that were greatly admired for the tea ceremony. They also discovered in northern Kyushu the proper ingredients needed to produce porcelain and were soon dazzling the guests at daimyo banquets with the first Japanese-made porcelain (see Ashikaga Bakufu , ch. 1).
The modern masters of these famous traditional kilns still bring the ancient formulas in pottery and porcelain to new heights of achievement at Shiga, Ige, Karatsu, Hagi, and Bizen. Yamamoto Masao of Bizen and Miwa Kyusetsu of Hagi were designated as mukei bunkazai. Only half-dozen potters were so honored by 1989 either as representatives of famous kiln wares or as creators of superlative techniques in glazing or decoration; two groups were designated for preserving the wares of distinguished ancient kilns.
In the old capital of Kyoto, the Raku family continued to produce the famous rough tea bowls that had so delighted Hideyoshi. At Mino, continued to be made to reconstruct the classic formulas of Momoyama-era Seto-type tea wares at Mino, such as the famous Oribe copper-green glaze and Shino ware's prized milky glaze. Artist potters experimented endlessly at the Kyoto and Tokyo arts universities to recreate traditional porcelain and its decorations under such outstanding ceramic teachers as Fujimoto Yoshimichi, a mukei bunkazai. Ancient porcelain kilns around Arita in Kyushu were still maintained by the lineage of the famous Sakaida Kakiemon XIV and Imaizume Imaiemon XIII, hereditary porcelain makers to the Nabeshima clan; both were heads of groups designated mukei bunkazai.
By the end of the 1980s, many master potters no longer worked at major or ancient kilns, but were making classic wares in various parts of Japan or in Tokyo, a notable example being Tsuji Seimei, who brought his clay from Shiga but potted in the Tokyo area. A number of artists were engaged in reconstructing famous Chinese styles of decoration or glazes, especially the blue-green celadon and the watery-green qingbai. One of the most beloved Chinese glazes in Japan is the chocolate-brown tenmoku glaze that covered the peasant tea bowls brought back from Southern Song China (in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries) by Zen monks. For their Japanese users, these chocolate-brown wares embodied the Zen aesthetic of wabi (rustic simplicity).
Interest in the humble art of the village potter was revived in a folk movement of the 1920s by such master potters as Hamada Shoji and Kawai Kanjiro. These artists studied traditional glazing techniques to preserve native wares in danger of disappearing. The kilns at Tamba, overlooking Kobe. A number of institutions came under the aegis of the Cultural Properties Protection Division.be, continued to produce the daily wares used in the Tokugawa period, while adding modern shapes. Most of the village wares were made anonymously by local potters for utilitarian purposes. Local styles, whether native or imported, tended to be continued without alteration into the present. In Kyushu, kilns set up by Korean potters in the sixteenth century, such as at Koishibara and its offshoot at Onta, perpetuated sixteenth-century Korean peasant wares. In Okinawa, the production of village ware continued under several leading masters, with Kaneshiro Jiro honored as a mukei bunkazai
題型難度分析
第一種題型是給段落配標題,考察大意,相對來說較細節題要難些,做題時要對每個段落的大意掌握。第二種題型是多選題,也是相對較難的題型。第三種題型是填空而且是針對制作過程的填空,因此相對較容易。
題型技巧分析
Heading題
首先要注意該題位于文章的前面,不要在考試中漏做或是做錯文章。
做題步驟:1. 劃去example選項,在list of headings中對例子中的標題劃去,以及在文章中把段落劃去。
2. 通讀剩下headings, 劃出關鍵詞,名詞為主。
3. 略讀每段,讀首句和尾句。首句讀完如遇到轉折類的詞匯如but, however, 要接著讀下一句。
4 將很有把握的段落先配好,然后再看其他段落。
同時,如果這個段落有多次提到某個標題中的關鍵詞,也可以確定此標題為這段的大意概括。
劍橋雅思推薦原文練習
劍7 Test2 Passage1
Reading Passage 3
Title:
環保節能車 Hybrid Cars
Question types:
Multiple choice
Summary with a box
YES/NO/NOT GIVEN
文章內容回顧
講環保汽車-混合動力車的制作,提及福特公司,產品上市前要全面檢測產品
英文原文閱讀
Hybrid cars are often known as "cars of the era." The main feature of the hybrid car is that when we start the car engine, electrical energy is used. This way it helps in keeping a tab on the tail pipe emissions. The use of automobiles is increasing in every part of the globe and so is the threat of toxic pollutants and global warming, thanks to their exhaust ingredients. But if we are using a hybrid car the decrease in the tail pipe emission will do a great service to the environment and society.
Hybrid Cars use a rechargeable energy storage system to supplement fossil fuel energy for vehicle propulsion. Hybrid engines are smaller and more efficient than traditional fuel engines. Some hybrid vehicles use regenerative braking to generate electricity while travelling. The term "Hybrid Vehicle" can also refer to a vehicle engine that uses a combination of different fuels such as petroleum and ethanol. The articles on this page are on the topic of Hybrid vehicles and related technologies.
The latest generation of hybrid cars will be blessed with revolutionary fuel cells developed by Monash University scientists that can make hybrid cars more reliable and cheaper to produce. This breakthrough was published on August 1, 2008 in the Science Journal. The key component in the latest design of these fuel cells is Goretex(R), which a specially-coated form of popular hi tech outdoor and sporting clothing material.
題型難度分析
第一個題型有三個單選題,做題時定位詞不明顯,用名詞定位。第二個題型是六個帶詞庫的摘要總結題,難度一般。最后一個題型是判斷,位于試卷的后面一頁,有些考生回憶到馬上交試卷的時候才發現導致沒做完。
題型技巧分析
Summary題型在閱讀中是填空題型中的一種,是主流題型。
按照范圍,這類題可分成全文題和段落題,按照填空內容,summary也可分原文原詞或從多個選項中選詞。原文原詞的題目要求中會有from the Reading Passage的字樣。從多個選項中選詞,選項的數目常常超過題目空格的數目。一般有選項類的summary各項之間極有可能亂序,而不像原文原詞類的summary大多按順序出題。
下面我們來看看解題步驟:
(1)仔細讀summary的第一句話,找出它在原文中的出處,通常是和原文某段話的第一句相對應。如果題目要求中已經指出了summary的出處,則此步可以略去不做。
(2)注意空格前后的詞,到原文中去找這些詞的對應詞。
對應詞的特點如下:
A. 原詞,這種可能性不大,如果有,也往往出現在一套題三篇閱讀的第一篇中。
B. 詞性變化,也即為同根詞轉化。
C. 語態變化,主動變被動,在近年的各次考試中,這種變化比較普遍。
D. 同義詞,如空格前的詞為develop, 原文中的詞為produce, 兩個詞在雅思考試中,都常考研發的意思。
(3)利用排除法,把summary每一個對應詞在原文中的映射劃去,基本上,原文那一句就不剩幾個詞了,根據詞性把剩下的詞挑出來就好。
(4)注意語法和邏輯,所填答案必須符合語法規定,填上的詞,也要配合原文讀讀,看看邏輯上是不是說得通。
TIPS:
1. 注意題目要求中是否有字數限制。
若要求從原文選詞或自己寫詞,會有字數要求,如Use ONE OR TWO WORDS等,答案必須滿足這個要求。
2. 若從原文選詞,只能選原文中連續的幾個詞,不能改變它們的順序。如原文為virgin fiber, 答案不可能是fiber virgin。原文為advances in the technology,答案不可能是technology advances。
3. 若要求從原文選詞,越是生詞,越可能是答案。
下列比較生僻的詞如sustainable(可持續的)、biodegradable(可生物降解的)、contaminants(廢物,雜物)、nostrils(鼻孔)都是一些題目的答案。
4. 從選項中選詞,要注意看題目要求是寫答案本身,還是寫選項前的代表字母。
選項前有代表字母的,肯定是要求答代表字母。最近的考試中,選項前大部分都有代表字母。
5. 從選項中選詞,答案與原文的六大對應關系。
(1)原文原詞:與原文完全相同的詞或短語。
(2)詞性變化:原文為necessary, 是形容詞,選項為necessity,是名詞。
(3)語態變化:原文為Governments have encouraged waste paper collection and sorting schemes, 是主動語態。summary中的句子為people have also been encouraged by government to collect their waste on a regular basis, 是被動語態。
(4)圖表:如果原文中有圖表,一般會有一題答案來自圖表。
(5)同義詞:原文為tight, 選項為restricted, 是同義詞。
(6)歸納:有時文中沒有直接提及,須從幾句話中歸納出答案。一般比較難,目前考試中,至少有一個空格是歸納出來的。
6. 從選項中選詞,如果時間不夠,可以直接從選項中選擇,不看原文。這時,要特別注意語法,這樣做的準確性50%左右(視題目的難易及考生的水平而定)。所以,除非時間不夠,否則不建議大家這樣做。
7. 如果要求自己寫詞,答案絕大部分是原文原詞,少部分是對原文原詞做的形式上的修改。要求自己寫詞的機率很小。
劍橋雅思推薦原文練習
劍3 Test4 Passage1
考試趨勢分析和備考指導:
從這次考試的題型來看,前幾個月常考的配對題型這次考試較少,只有一個段落配標題。較多的題型是文章摘要題型和判斷題,因此從題型上看,這次考試不算特別難。同時,summary題型也一直是主流題型,而這次的摘要題都為有選項的摘要題,判斷題雖然今年以來的數量在減少,但是除了只有三月份的一次沒有出現判斷外,其他的每次考試都有,而且這次考試出現了兩組。因此學員在復習備考時也不能對此種題型放松。除此之外,另外一種題型—選擇題也是這次考試的主要題型,這種題型一直也是今年考試的重點,尤其是以單選題為主。
從話題角度看,這三篇文章的話題應該都不是很陌生,關于小孩,日本以及環保的內容的文章在劍橋雅思真題中都是可以找到相應文章的,仍舊建議學員對劍橋雅思真題4-8認真做,每篇文章進行略讀,看段落首尾句,抓住重心。
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